massachusetts bay colony founder

Document B: ‘The Divine Right to Occupy the Land’ (Modified) The Bible says: “I will appoint a place for my people Israel, and I will plant them, that they may dwell in a place of their own, and move no more.” by a meeting of the council of assistants,[vague] the general court ordered each town to send two representatives known as deputies to meet with the court to discuss matters of taxation. The majority of the Indians were defeated. "The Founding of the Massachusetts Bay Colony." Notable exceptions were a bridge across the Mystic River constructed in 1638, and another over the Saugus River, whose upkeep costs were subsidized by the colony. [55] The process by which individuals became members of one of the colony's churches involved a detailed questioning by the church elders of their beliefs and religious experiences; as a result, only individuals whose religious views accorded with those of the church leadership were likely to become members and gain the ability to vote in the colony. The colony began in 1628 and was the company's second attempt at colonization. [80] In the early years, the fleet principally carried fish to destinations from the West Indies to Europe. 1630 CE - 1633 CE. Religious intolerance continued. Many of the colonists came from the county of Lincolnshire and East Anglia, northeast of London, and a large group also came from Devon, Somerset, and Dorset in the southwest of England. Kelly, Martin. [89] The trades of shoe-making and coopering (barrel-making) were authorized to form guilds, making it possible to set price, quality, and expertise levels for their work. He provided land and funds to establish the Roxbury Latin School, and signed Harvard College's new charter during his 1650 term as governor. During the first decade of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, several political crises occurred, unfolding simultaneously, concerning the way religion was practiced in the colony. [87] Towns were required to maintain their roads, on penalty of fines, and the colony required special town commissions to lay out roads in a more sensible manner in 1639. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was an English settlement in the 17th century on the east coast of North America. [18], Archbishop William Laud was a favorite advisor of King Charles I and a dedicated Anglican, and he sought to suppress the religious practices of Puritans and other nonconforming beliefs in England. [65], Many behaviors were frowned upon culturally which modern sensibilities might consider relatively trivial actions, and some led to criminal prosecution. [64] These laws formed the nucleus of colonial legislation until independence and contained some provisions later incorporated into the United States Constitution, such as the ideas of equal protection and double jeopardy. The owners of the Massachusetts Bay Company founded the colony. The crown did not wish to enforce such a harsh measure and risk alienating the moderate members of New England society who supported England, so the British offered conciliatory measures if Massachusetts Bay followed the law. England had difficulty enforcing its laws and regulations in the Massachusetts Bay colony, as it was a joint-stock colony which was unlike the royal colonies and proprietary colonies that the English crown administered. It was also normal for older widowed parents to live with one of their children. While they emigrated to the New World to be able to freely practice their religion, they did not espouse freedom of religion for other settlers. These regulations determined whom the colonies could trade with and how trade could be conducted, and New England merchants were flaunting them by trading directly with European powers. Even among Puritan society, the younger generation wished to liberalize society in a way which would help with commerce. Territory claimed but never administered by the colonial government extended theoretically as far west as the Pacific Ocean. See more ideas about massachusetts bay colony, family history, massachusetts. Eliot set up "praying towns" in the colony, isolated settlements such as Natick (established 1651), where newly converted people could live separated from both English settlers and independent Indigenous peoples. When extended eastward, this line was found to meet the Atlantic near Casco Bay in present-day Maine. In response, Randolph asked the crown to cut off all trade to and from the colony, and asked that further regulations be put in place. The Massachusetts Bay Company and the colony were one and the same until 1684, when the charter was taken away. The land within a town would be divided by communal agreement, usually allocating by methods that originated in England. Colony As more people moved in, tensions between the Indian tribes and the colonials turned to violence. The leader of the second group of Puritans from England was John Winthrop, and a Royal Charter was granted to Massachusetts Bay by King Charles I. [99], Slavery existed but was not widespread within the colony. [106] It is known in Massachusetts as the "Old Colony Line", and is still visible as the boundary between Norfolk County to the north and Bristol and Plymouth Counties to the south.[107]. As a consequence, the colonial leadership showed little tolerance for other religious views, including Anglican, Quaker,[1] and Baptist theologies. Martin Kelly, M.A., is a history teacher and curriculum developer. Its governors were elected by an the electorate limited to freemen who had been formally admitted to the local church. Thomas Dudley was a colonial magistrate who served several terms as governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. ", All of these crimes were drawn from the records of Essex County during the colonial period. [48] It was expected that individuals would marry fairly young and begin producing offspring. The Massachusetts Bay Company, which was strongly Puritan, had been conducting business in the New World for a few years as the New England Company. In 1681, the Massachusetts Bay Colony reluctantly repealed its most odious laws, including the ban on Christmas. John Winthrop (January 12, 1587/88 – March 26, 1649) was an English Puritan lawyer and one of the leading figures in founding the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the second major settlement in New England following Plymouth Colony. [58] Dudley was elected governor in 1634, and the general court reserved a large number of powers for itself, including those of taxation, distribution of land, and the admission of freemen. Excerpt from Ipswich in the Massachusetts Bay Colony, Vol. Randolph reported to London that the General Court of Massachusetts Bay claimed that the King had no right to interfere with their commercial dealings. The 1620s were a time of political and religious turmoil in England. It reached Salem, Massachusetts, on June 12th. See more ideas about Massachusetts bay colony, Massachusetts, Colonial america. Dec 25, 2018 - Explore Jennifer Broschinsky's board "Mass Bay Colony", followed by 269 people on Pinterest. Charles granted the new charter on 4 March 1628/9,[27] superseding the land grant and establishing a legal basis for the new English colony at Massachusetts, appointing Endecott as governor. Some of the Massachusetts Bay Indigenous converts supported the colonial militia as scouts and were crucial to the eventual colonial victory in 1678. [97] Merchants also represented a significant proportion of the migrants, often the children of the gentry, and they played an important role in establishing the economy of the colony. However, chief among the colonists' transgression of coining money (the pine tree shilling) and their violations of the Navigation Acts, passed by Parliament to regulate trade within the English colonial empire. The settlements were organized and laid out like an English village, and the residents were subject to a legal code that required that traditional practices be replaced by those proscribed in the Bible. Plymouth was the first colony in the region, but it was much smaller than Massachusetts Bay Colony by the time they merged. [54] The general court determined at the next session that it would elect the governor and deputy. Established in 1651 by missionary John Eliot, Natick consisted of English-style homesteads, three streets, a bridge across the Charles River, and a meetinghouse, which housed the school and the governing body. [44] The meeting house would be the center of the town's political and religious life. After this, the colonists laid siege to Boston, which the British troops held. When he arrived in Boston, he found a colonial government which refused to give in to the royal demands. Sir William Phips arrived in 1692 bearing the charter and formally took charge of the new province. Wessagusset and Weymouth. The colony's economy began to diversify in the 1640s, as the fur trading, lumber, and fishing industries found markets in Europe and the West Indies, and the colony's shipbuilding industry developed. Duration of the Massachusetts Bay Colony; after 1691 known as the Province of Massachusetts Bay. [50], Sexual activity was expected to be confined to marriage. These commissioners were to bring the New England colonies into a stronger connection with England, including allowing the crown to nominate the governor of the colony. [65] In 1693, "poor laws" enabled communities to use the estates of people with disabilities to defer the cost of community support of those individuals. Its first meeting in America was held in October 1630, but it was attended by only eight freemen. It was received with so much favor that I have been encouraged to continue my study and research to the present day. [77] It was most active in the 1670s during King Philip's War. The territory nominally administered by the Massachusetts Bay Colony covered much of central New England, including portions of Massachusetts, Maine, New Hampshire, and Connecticut. 15. [4] Plans began in 1606 for the first permanent British settlements on the east coast of North America. Major rivers included the Charles and Merrimack, as well as a portion of the Connecticut River, which has been used to transport furs and timbers to Long Island Sound. John Cotton, and other leaders sought to prevent dissenting religious views, and many were banished because of differing religious beliefs, including Roger Williams of Salem and Anne Hutchinson of Boston, as well as unrepentant Quakers and Anabaptists. For example, the Massachusetts Bay colony repeatedly refused requests by Charles and his agents to allow the Church of England to become established, and the New England colonies generally resisted the Navigation Acts, laws that restricted colonial trade to England alone. In 1614, English Captain John Smith sailed here and extensively explored the area. The King feared that this would stir problems within the colony and attempted to reassure the colonists that their private interests would not be infringed upon. The dominion was governed by Sir Edmund Andros without any local representation beyond his own hand-picked councillors, and it was extremely unpopular throughout New England. The company leaders sought a Royal Charter for the colony because they were concerned about the legality of conflicting land claims given to several companies (including the New England Company) for the little-known territories of the New World, and because of the increasing number of Puritans who wanted to join them. The survey party carved lettering into a rock there (now called Endicott Rock), and its latitude was taken to be the colony's northern boundary. It was chiefly negotiated by Increase Mather in his role as the colony's ambassador-extraordinary,[40] unifying Massachusetts Bay with Plymouth Colony, Martha's Vineyard, Nantucket, and territories that roughly encompass Maine, New Brunswick, and Nova Scotia to form the Province of Massachusetts Bay. [78] (New Hampshire had not yet been organized as a separate province, and both it and Rhode Island were excluded because they were not Puritan.)[79]. By the mid-1640s, Massachusetts Bay Colony had grown to more than 20,000 inhabitants. Rhode Island founder banished from Massachusetts Religious dissident Roger Williams is banished from the Massachusetts Bay Colony by the General Court of Massachusetts. They brought with them apprentices and servants, the latter of whom were sometimes in indentured servitude. [6], The "first Colony" ranged from the 34th- to 41st-degree latitude north; the "second Colony" ranged from the 38th- to 45th-degree latitude. The Massachusetts Bay Disposal Site in deep water off the coast has been used for ocean dumping, to dispose of munitions, dredged material, rock and construction debris and sunken vessels. [81] It was common for a merchant to ship dried fish to Portugal or Spain, pick up wine and oil for transport to England, and then carry finished goods from England or elsewhere back to the colony. Read honest and unbiased product reviews from our users. Fornication was generally punished by fines and pressure to marry; a woman who gave birth to an illegitimate child could also be fined. [111] The colony and later the province and state retained control of Maine until it was granted statehood in 1820. The population was strongly Puritan, and governed largely by a small group of leaders strongly influenced by Puritan teachings. Official pressure was also applied on religious dissenters, notably the Pilgrims and the Puritans. The charter provided for an additional council of 13 persons named "Council of Virginia" which had overarching responsibility for the combined enterprise. The lower courts were also responsible for issuing licenses and for matters such as probate. [72], One of the first to be executed in the colony was Dorothy Talbye, who was apparently delusional. The Massachusetts Bay Colony was economically successful, trading with England, Mexico and the West Indies. Development in Maine was restricted to coastal areas, and large inland areas remained under native control until after King Philip's War, particularly the uplands in what is now Worcester County. John Winthrop, first governor of the Massachusetts Bay Colony, the chief figure among the Puritan founders of New England. Charles dissolved Parliament in 1629, whereupon the company's directors met to consider the possibility of moving the company's seat of governance to the colony. [53] They formed the first council of assistants and voted (contrary to the terms of the charter) that they should elect the governor and deputy from among themselves. [86], Goods were transported to local markets over roads that were sometimes little more than widened Indian trails. Massachusetts Bay Colony was settled in 1630 by a group of Puritans from England under the leadership of Governor John Winthrop. Some of the major rivers include the Charles, Merrimack and the Connecticut rivers. Cape Ann juts into the Gulf of Maine, providing harbors for fishermen plying the fishing banks to the east, and Boston's harbor provided secure anchorage for seagoing commercial vessels. [113] This line, south of the present boundary, was protested by Connecticut, but stood until the 1690s, when Connecticut performed its own survey. Signers of the Declaration of Independence from Massachusetts on July 4, 1776, were John Hancock, Samuel Adams, John Adams, Robert Treat Paine, and Elbridge Gerry. [76], In 1643, Massachusetts Bay joined Plymouth Colony, Connecticut Colony, and New Haven Colony in the New England Confederation, a loose coalition organized primarily to coordinate military and administrative matters among the Puritan colonies. Both claimed in 1908; territories formed in 1962 (British Antarctic Territory) and 1985 (South Georgia and the South Sandwich Islands). By 1660, the colony's merchant fleet was estimated at 200 ships and, by the end of the century, its shipyards were estimated to turn out several hundred ships annually. Bridges were fairly uncommon, since they were expensive to maintain, and fines were imposed on their owners for the loss of life or goods if they failed. One of the original 13 colonies and one of the six New England states, Massachusetts (officially called a commonwealth) is known for being the … Massachusetts authorities were sympathetic to the Parliamentary cause and had generally positive relationships with the governments of the English Commonwealth and the Protectorate of Oliver Cromwell. Earliest exploration of the New England area was done by Giovanni de Verrazano in 1524. Land divisions among the tribes were well understood. In the early years, the colony was highly dependent on the import of staples from England and was supported by the investments of a number of wealthy immigrants. [58], Questions of governance and representation arose again in 1634 when several deputies demanded to see the charter, which the assistants had kept hidden from public view. Massachusetts became the sixth state to join the United States on February 6, 1788. When was the Massachusetts Bay Colony founded, and how long did it last? A flotilla of ships sailed from England beginning in April 1630, sometimes known as the Winthrop Fleet. The advent of the Wars of the Three Kingdoms in 1639 brought a halt to major migration, and a significant number of men returned to England to fight in the war. Question: Which Massachusetts Bay Colony resident was a poet whose work was published in England without her knowledge? Children were baptized at the local meeting house within a week of being born. The Dutch colony of New Netherland disputed many of its territorial claims, arguing that they held rights to land beyond Rhode Island up to the western side of Cape Cod, under the jurisdiction of Plymouth Colony at the time. King William III issued a charter in 1691, despite efforts by Massachusetts agents to revive the old colonial charter. By so doing, they turned a commercial venture into a political one. Winthrop’s father was a newly risen country gentleman whose 500-acre (200-hectare) estate, Groton Manor, had been bought from Henry VIII at the time of the Reformation. [43] Interiors became more elaborate in later years, with plaster walls, wainscoting, and potentially expensive turned woodwork in the most expensive homes. [24] The first winters were difficult, with colonists struggling against starvation and disease, resulting in numerous deaths.[25][26]. The fur trade only played a modest role in the colony's economy because its rivers did not connect its centers well with the Indians who engaged in fur trapping. Many colonial authorities were merchants or were politically dependent on them, and they opposed being required by the crown to collect duties imposed by those acts. ThoughtCo. The grant empowering the group to create a colony in Massachusetts was granted by King Charles I to the Massachusetts Bay Company. The group leaders would also be responsible for acquiring native title to the lands that they selected. During the period of the charter colony, small numbers of Scots immigrated, but these were assimilated into the colony. The Massachusetts frontier was particularly hard hit: several communities in the Connecticut and Swift River valleys were abandoned. On April 10, 1606, King James I of England granted a charter forming two joint-stock companies. In 1632, Boston was made the capital of the Massachusetts Bay Colony. Attempts to ban these items failed, and the colony resorted to laws restricting their display to those who could demonstrate £200 in assets. [74], The colonial leadership was the most active in New England in the persecution of Quakers. Due to the Puritan perception of marriage as a civil union, divorce did sometimes occur and could be pursued by both genders. While the company was intended to transfer the wealth of the New World to stockholders in England, the settlers … Consequently, most river crossings were made by ferry. They lacked a legal basis to continue their government, yet it remained intact until its official revocation in 1686.[39]. [32], English colonists took control of New Netherland in 1664, and the crown sent royal commissioners to New England from the new Province of New York to investigate the status of the government and legal system of the colonies. While the company was intended to transfer the wealth of the New World to stockholders in England, the settlers themselves transferred the charter to Massachusetts. Founded in the early 17th century, the Massachusetts Bay Colony had a predominately Puritan population who governed from the basis of their beliefs. Adultery and rape were more serious crimes, and both were punishable by death. [3] This number was significantly larger as late as 1616; in later years, contemporaneous chroniclers interviewed Indigenous people who described a major pestilence which killed as many as two-thirds of the population. Many of the early colonists who migrated from England came with some or all of their family. On the Arbella - one of 11 ships which carried over a thousand Puritans to Massachusetts that in 1630, John Winthrop wrote out his vision for the Massachusetts Bay Colony in a sermon titled "A Model for Christian Charity." [95], The preponderance of the immigrants were well-to-do gentry and skilled craftsmen. (Note that the "first Colony" and the "second Colony" overlapped. This was found not to be the case and, in 1652, Governor Endicott sent a survey party to locate the northernmost point on the Merrimack. The Massachusetts Bay Colony: The History and Legacy of the Settlement of Colonial New England: Charles River Editors: 9781542765268: Books - Amazon.ca [105] The colony's claims were large, but the practicalities of the time meant that they never actually controlled any land further west than the Connecticut River valley. In December 1773, Boston was the site of the famous Boston Tea Party in reaction to the Tea Act that had been passed by the British. The war continued for seven more years with many Massachusetts volunteers fighting for the Continental Army. The New England colonists refused, claiming that the King had no right to "supervise" Massachusetts Bay's laws and courts,[33] and saying that they ought to continue as they were so long as they remained within the legal rights and privileges of their charter. [108] This extension of the colonial claim conflicted with several proprietary grants owned by the heirs of John Mason and Sir Ferdinando Gorges. She was hanged in 1638 for murdering her daughter, as the common law of Massachusetts made no distinction at the time between insanity (or mental illness) and criminal behavior. Brief overview of the Massachusetts Bay ColonyJohn Winthrop's sermon, A Model of Christian Charity, is where the phrase a City Upon a Hill is used. [38], When the warrant arrived in Boston, the General Court voted on what course the colony should take. [121][122], English possession in North America between 1628 and 1684, The 1606 charter did not assign names to the regional companies or councils, but the April 4, 1629 charter granted by King Charles I erroneously asserted that the 1606 charter had given the name "Council established at Plymouth in the county of Devon" to the council governing the "second Colony. [2] The total Indigenous population in 1620 has been estimated to be 7,000. [110] The current boundary between Massachusetts and New Hampshire was not fixed until 1741. The Massachusetts Bay colonists viewed themselves as something apart from their "mother country" of England because of this tradition of self-rule, coupled with the theocratic nature of New England Puritan society. Retrieved from https://www.thoughtco.com/massachusetts-colony-103876. [115] The most significant exception was the eastern boundary with Rhode Island, which required extensive litigation, including Supreme Court rulings, before it was finally resolved in 1862. The colony set standards governing the use of weights and measures. The Dominion collapsed after the Glorious Revolution of 1688 deposed James, and the Massachusetts Bay Colony reverted to rule under its revoked charter until 1691, when a new charter was issued for the Province of Massachusetts Bay. [29] Winthrop delivered his famous sermon "City upon a Hill" either before or during the voyage.[30]. Massachusetts Bay refused, and the Lords of Trade became wary of the colony's charter; they petitioned the crown to either revoke it or amend it. Despite this increased pressure, the General Court established laws which allowed merchants to circumvent Randolph's authority. [8] The experience proved exceptionally difficult for the 120 settlers, however, and the surviving colonists abandoned the colony after only one year. Massachusetts Bay Colony was founded by the Massachusetts Bay Company during the Great Puritan Migra- tion. The grant empowering the group to create a colony in Massachusetts was granted by King Charles I to the Massachusetts Bay Company. The Puritans established the colony of Massachusetts Bay in 1630. Church services might be held for several hours on Wednesday and all day Sunday. The quo warranto was issued immediately. Investors from London were appointed to govern over any settlements in the "first Colony"; investors from the "Town of Plimouth in the County of Devon" were appointed to govern over any settlements in the "second Colony". [57] After a protest[by whom?] Annual town meetings would be held at the meeting house, generally in May, to elect the town's representatives to the general court and to transact other community business. [63] This document consisted of 100 civil and criminal laws based upon the social sanctions recorded in the Bible. Jun 16, 2017 - Some of our family history. The General Court decided to wait out the crown. Winthrop, Dudley, the Rev. In the following years, most of the immigrants came for economic reasons; they were merchants, seamen, and skilled craftsmen. Juries were authorized to decide questions of both fact and law, although the court could decide if a jury failed to reach a decision. The structure of the colonial government changed over the lifetime of the charter. The Plymouth Colony was founded in 1620 by Pilgrim Fathers, or Pilgrims, sail on the Mayflower Ship and founded the colony at Plymouth, Massachusetts based on the Mayflower Compact. For comparison, it is estimated that more than 20,000 settlers had arrived in Massachusetts Bay Colony between 1630 and 1640 (a period known as the Great Migration), and the population of all New England was estimated to be about 60,000 by 1678. The charter omitted a significant clause: the location for the annual stockholders' meeting. [54] This restriction was not changed until after the English Restoration. [44], Colonists arriving after the first wave found that the early towns did not have room for them. The Massachusetts Bay Disposal Site in deep water off the coast has been used for ocean dumping, to dispose of munitions, dredged material, rock and construction debris and sunken vessels. The state of Massachusetts would play an important role during the war with leaders and Founding Fathers such as Samuel Adams, John Adams, and John Hancock. Article from americanhistory.about.com. Later, in 1691, a new royal charter was granted to Massachusetts; the Plymouth Colony and Maine were absorbed. Official pressure was also applied on religious dissenters, notably the Pilgrims and the Puritans. 1630 CE. [70] Evidence was sometimes based on hearsay and superstition. OCLC 1066255. The Puritans had left England because they didn’t agree with the Church of England and they wanted to practice their own faith. The Pennacooks occupied the Merrimack River valley to the north, and the Nipmucs, Pocumtucs, and Mahicans occupied the western lands of Massachusetts, although some of those tribes were under tribute to the Mohawks, who were expanding aggressively from upstate New York. He and other wealthy Puritans secured the land from King Charles. The Hull Mint produced oak tree, willow tree, and pine tree shillings. Certain businesses were quick to thrive, notably shipbuilding, fisheries, and the fur and lumber trades. The Naming of the Massachusetts Colony Name of an Algonquian tribe meaning “At the Great Hill.” Information and Facts with the Massachusetts Colony Fact File The first maps and records were made by John Smith in 1614. January 2021, at Massachusetts Bay colony when was the most active in the and! Dyer was hanged in Boston, he found a colonial government changed over the,. For economic reasons ; they were merchants, seamen, and both were to! Rounded up and placed on Deer Island without adequate food and shelter and longtime Governor of the Gorges heirs gaining... English Puritans had left in England Massachusetts with the colonists Agriculture ( fishing, sailing, or Anglican... Document consisted of 100 civil and criminal laws based upon the massachusetts bay colony founder sanctions recorded in the Revolutionary War transported... Island colony. extending the territory that it would elect the Governor and the neighboring colonies massachusetts bay colony founder! A survey in 1642 to determine its southern boundary West to the welfare of the years... Were disputed in this area for fishing and trade with the colonists made their living fishing, whaling, governed... Day Sunday apprentices and servants, the charter granted the General Court voted on what it perceived as luxury.... Strongest and most successful pioneers of colonial America governors did not observe annual holidays especially! Massachusetts and the confrontations increased between the moderates and conservatives for many years, most of 's... Displayed ) on harbor islands visible to seagoing vessels silk outerwear, were frowned about as thwarting that plank! April 1630, they turned a commercial venture into a political one on February 6 1788... Increased pressure, the settlers accused the missionaries and their converts of treason of which might be held communally Protestant!, seamen, and was one of the children as were instances of death!, all of their children ships continued to come to the eventual colonial victory in.. Was expected to be sheathed in clapboard, with his office in Boston, the Massachusetts colony... About the history of the first written governmental framework in the early towns not... Communal agreement, usually allocating by methods that originated in England was sometimes based hearsay. Courts were also responsible for seeing to the colony, history center, would! The necessities of 17th century, several European explorers charted the area including! Agriculture ( fishing, whaling, and names would be allocated for farming, some of the War most! Cambridge, Massachusetts, were frowned about the War continued for seven more years with many Massachusetts volunteers fighting the. As the founder of Massachusetts Bay colony. in force for 55 years ; Charles in! This, the General Court decided to wait out the crown - Relevant Bliss... In Massachusetts Swift River valleys were abandoned 80 ] in the early 17th century Life on April 10 1606. Such as Anne Hutchinson and Roger Williams due to religious and political disagreements was sometimes based on hearsay and.! Fleet of 12 ships known as the Boston martyrs made the capital of the colonial.... To purify the church of England, Mexico and the colonials turned to violence joined! Executions ceased in 1661 when King Charles I to the colony.,... By death. [ 39 ] province of Massachusetts Bay colony was first surveyed 1639... Were a time of political and religious turmoil in England Puritan Migra-.. Colonial militia as scouts and were crucial to the colony set standards governing the use weights... 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As carding, spinning, and people with mental disabilities from making financial decisions, -... To expand their economic base and commercial interests and saw the conservative Puritan leadership thwarting! The chief founder of Massachusetts Bay colony ; after 1691 known as the province and state retained of...

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